The Semantic Network of Government and State-making in the Late Naꜥini’s View

Document Type : Original Article


Assistant professor in Department of Political Philosophy, Research Center of Islamic Sciences and Culture, Qom, Iran


Among the Muslim thinkers, Mirza Naʾini has a considerable role in explaining the Islamic government and state-making as well as the constitutionalist movement. The main question of this study is as follows: “How was the semantic network and Islamic state-making in the constitutional era?” To answer that question, we must say that Mirza Naʾini starts his discussion on the government from its necessity and maintains that people are the foundation of any government. He has attempted to use the foundations of the Shiite jurisprudence and explain the concepts such as politics, constitutional law, law, assembly, freedom and equality to prepare the ground for the public order in the constitutionalism era. Naʾini, like other Shiite thinkers, maintains that the desirable government is that of the impeccable Imams, but he believes in constitutional government and establishment of a state on its basis due to necessity in the Occultation Period. The semantic and conceptual network of Naʾini’s state is based on the Shiite thought, and wherever the society (constitutional revolution) departed from this network, leaning towards the semantic network outside its homeland (i.e. the western constitutionalism), the movement failed.


  1. Abadiyan, H. (1374 SH). Mabānī Naẓarī Ḥukūmat Mashrūṭa wa Mashrūꜥ Tehran: Ney Publications. [In Persian]
  2. Ajudani, L. (1383 SH). ꜥUlamā wa Inqilāb Mashrūṭiyyat Īrā Tehran: Akhtaran Publications. [In Persian]
  3. Amudi Tamimi, ꜥ (1377 SH). Ghurar al-Ḥikam wa Durar al-Kalim (Trans. Ansari, M. ꜥA, Vol. 1, 2.) Tehran: Arman Publications. [In Persian]
  4. Heydari Behnuya, ꜥ (1386 SH). Andīshayi Siyāsī Ayatollah Mīrzā Muhammad Hussein Nāʾīnī. Qom: Bustan Kitab. [In Persian]
  5. Kadivar, M. (1385 SH). Siyāsat Ākhūnd Khurāsānī, Qaṭaꜥāt Siyāsī dar Āthār Ākhūnd Mullā Muḥammad Kāẓim Khurāsānī. Tehran: Kavir. [In Persian]
  6. Kasravi, A. (1357 SH). Tārīkh Mashrūṭa Īrā Tehran: Amirkabir. [In Persian]
  7. Kermani, N. (1357 SH). Tārīkh Bīdārī Īrāniyān (ed. Saꜥidi Sirjani, ꜥ A.). Tehran: Iranian Culture Foundation. [In Persian]
  8. Lock, J. (1993). Two Treatises of Government (ed. Ch. Sherman). London: Appleton-century-crofts.
  9. Malik-zada, M. (1387 SH). Tārīkh Inqilāb Mashrūṭiyat Īrā Tehran: Sokhan. [In Persian]
  10. Mir-Ahmadi, M. (1390 SH). Andīshayi Siyāsī Ākhūnd Khurāsānī. Qom: Research Center of Islamic Sciences and Culture. [In Persian]
  11. Morvaridi (1372 SH). Adwār Majlis Qānūn-guzārī dar Dowrān Mashrūṭ Tehran: Awhadi Publications. [In Persian]
  12. Naʾini, M. H. (1361 SH). Tanbīh al-Umma wa Tanzīh al-Milla (intro and ed. Taleqani, S. M.) (7th). Tehran: Inteshar Corporation. [In Persian]
  13. Najafi Quchani, M. H. (1393 SH). Siyāsatnāma (ed. Shakeri, R. ꜥ). Tehran: Kavir. [In Persian]
  14. Sariꜥ al-Qalam, M. (1390 SH). Iqtidār-girāʾī Īrān dar ꜥAhd Qājā Tehran: Forouzan Publications. [In Persian]
  15. Thobut, ꜥ A. (1389 SH). Dīdgāhhāyi Ākhūnd Khurāsānī wa Shāgirdānash. Tehran: Tarh Now. [In Persian]
  16. Zargari-nejad, Gh, Ḥ. (1387 SH). Rasāʾil Mashrūṭiyyat (Vol. 1-2). Tehran: Institute of Researches and Development of Humanities. [In Persian]