The People and the Government in the Contemporary Shiite Political Jurisprudence (Constitutional Period)

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor in Department of Public Law, Faculty of Humanities, Bū-Ali Sīnā University, Hamadan, Iran

2 MA in Department of Public Law, Faculty of Humanities, Bū-Ali Sīnā University, Hamadan, Iran.

10.22081/jips.2021.71486

Abstract

The Shiite political jurisprudence in the Constitutional Period was much bold. Ākhūnd Khurāsānī and his pupils were among the most prominent jurists – in the Constitutional period – who had many innovations in the constitutionalist thought. One of the great achievements of these jurists in the political arena is the relationship between people and the government. These jurists had, in their temporal conditions as the representatives of the great Shiite tradition, an important role in modernism of the Iranians. They did not stop in the past doctrines; rather, they used the political and social ordinances of the Shiite jurisprudence; and using the capacities of legal reasoning according to the conditions of time, place and demands of the time, they opened a new chapter in the Iranian and Islamic thoughts. Before the Constitutional period, people had mainly no right in the government, but there appeared a change in the discussions. The great Shiite scholars could highlight the people's status in the government by scrutiny and using the Islamic doctrines. Ākhūnd Khurāsānī and his co-thinkers, Mīrzā Nāʾīnī and Sheikh Ismāʿīl Maḥallātī, used new criteria in classification of governments, and opened way for people's participation.

Keywords


The Holy Quran
Ādamiyyat, F. (1355 SH). Īdiuluzhīyi Nahḍat-i Mashrūṭiyyat. Tehran: Payām Publications.
Ājūdānī, M. (1382 SH). Mashrūṭayi Īrānī. Tehran: Akhtarān Publications.
ʿAmīd Zanjānī, ʿA. (1379 SH). Mabānī Ḥukūmat dar Andīshayi Siyāsīyi Mīrzā Nāʾīnī, Siyrī dar Ārā wa Andīshahāyi Nābighayi Buzurg Shīʿa Ḥaḍrat Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Gharawī Nāʾīnī (Husseinī Rūḥānī and Hāshimī, eds.). Isfahan: Society of Contemporary Cultural Works.
Bihbahānī, A. (1395 SH). "Minhāj al-ʿUlā" in Siyāsat-nāmihāyi Qājārī (vol. 3). Tehran: Nigāristān-i Andīsha.
Ḥāʾirī, ʿI. (1392 SH). Tashayuʿ wa Mashrūṭiyyat (5th ed.). Tehran: Amīrkabīr Publications.
Ḥaqdār ʿA. (1384 SH). Qudrat-i Siyāsī dar Andīshayi Īrānī: az Fārābī tā Nāʾīnī. Tehran: Kawīr Publication.
Idem. (1392 SH). "Fiqh wa Amr-i Siyāsī" in Siyāsat, 43 (1).
Khurāsānī, M. K. (1387 SH). Siyāsat-nāmayi Khurāsānī (2nd ed.) (Kadīwar, ed.). Tehran: Kawīr Publications.
Kifāʾī, M. A. (1390 SH). "al-Liʾālī al-Marbūṭa fī Wujūb al-Mashrūṭa" in Zargarī-Nijād, Gh. Rasāʾil Mashrūṭiyat. Tehran: Institute for Research and Development in Humanities.
Maḥallātī, M. A. (1396 SH). Khānishi Ḥuqūqī az Inqilāb Mashrūṭayi Īrān. Tehran: Mīzan Publications.
Malkam-khān (1388 SH). Rasāʾil Mīrzā Malkam-khān (Aṣīl, Ḥ. A. ed.). Tehran: Ney publications.
Mīr-Aḥmadī, M. (1390 SH). Andīshayi Siyāsiyi Ākhūnd Khurāsānī. Tehran: Research Center of Humanities.
Murādī Ṭādī, M. R. (1397 SH). Jarayān-i Siyāsat-Nama Niwīsī dar Tārīkh-i Andīshayi Siyāsī Sadahāyi Miyāna. Tehran: Tamaddun ʿIlmī Publications.
Murādkhānī, F. (1397 SH). "Basṭ Mafāhīm-i Ḥuqūq Khuṣūṣī dar Ḥuqūq ʿUmūmī dar Inqilāb Mashrūṭayi Īrān" in Siyāsat-Nāma, 3 (9).
 Murādkhānī, F. and Ṣādiqiyān, F. (1397 SH). "Mafhūm-i Ḥuqūq Mushtarakayi Nowʿiya dar Andīshay-i Nāʾīnī" in Juatārhāyi Tārīkhī, 9 (1).
Nahj al-Balāgha (1387 SH). (Dashtī, M. Trans.). Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb.
Nāʾīnī, M. Ḥ. (1390 SH). "Tanbīh al-ʾUmma wa Tanzīh al-Milla" in Zargari-Nijād, Gh. Rasāʾil Mashrūṭiyat. Tehran: Institute of Research and development of Humanities.
Nūrī, M. (1382 SH). "Falsafayi Siyāsīyi Shīʿa dar Andīshayi MĪrzāyi Nāʾīnī" in Kitāb-i Māh, no. 73 and 74.
Rūḥānī, A. (1385 SH). "Hūkūmat, Amānatī Ilāhī wa Mutaʿalliq bi Mardum: Taḥlīlī bar Kitāb-i Liʾālī al-Marbūṭa fī Wujūb al-Mashrūṭa niwishtayi Ayatollah Sheikh Ismāʿīl Maḥallātī" in Bimonthly of Chashm-Andāz-i Īrān, (40).
Ṣhīrkhānī, A. and Ibrāhīmī, F. (1390 SH). "Fahm Mashrūṭā dar Partow Andīshayi Dīnīyi Ākhūnd Khurāsānī" in Collection of Article in International Congress for Commemoration of Ākhūnd Khurāsānī (Political and Social). Qom: Research Center of Islamic Sciences and Culture.
Talibov, ʿ. R. (1356 SH). Kitāb Aḥmad. Tehran: Shabgīr Publications.
Taskīn-dūst, M. N. (1381 SH). "MashrJṭiyyat az Manẓar-i Nāʾīnī" in Bāztāb-i Andīsha (36).
Thubūt, A. (1395 SH). Āzādī wa Istibdād az Nigāh-i Ākhūnd Khurāsānī. Tehran: Wāyā Publications.
Turābī-Pūr, M. (1391 SH). "Ayatollah Nāʾīnī wa Pārlimān" in Maʿrifat Magazine, 21(172).
Waraʿī, J. (1382 SH). Pazhūhishī dar Andīshayi Siyāshīyi Nāʾīnī. Qom: Secretariat of the Assembly of Experts for Leadership.
Yāwarī, N. (1397 SH). Andarz bi Sultān, Naṣīḥat wa Siyāsat dar Islām-i Qurūn-i Miyāna (Dihqānī, M. Trans.). Tehran: Tārīkh Īrān Publications.
 Zargarī-Nijād, Ghulām-Hussein (1377 SH). "Manābiʿ Andīshayi Siyāsī dar Īrān" in Rasāʾil-i Mashrūṭiyat (18 Risāla wa Lāyiḥa darbārayi Mashrūṭiyat). Tehran: Kawīr Publications.